The History of Jewelry

Throughout human history irrespective of religion race or culture jewelry has existed as an integral form of expression, wealth and social status. While the materials and techniques used to manufacture jewelry have in many ways evolved there are also a number of similarities with the very first forms of jewelry worn some 90,000 years ago. During this time bead necklaces constructed from shells were strung together with twine most likely as charms. Necklaces constructed from the same components are still available today. While new trends such as dangle earrings and promise rings dominate today's jewelry fashions, bracelets first worn in 4700BC during the reign of King Zer were constructed from gold and manufactured in a style widely available today.

The function of jewelry has evolved and varied over time from a form of currency to a fashion accessory and form of artistic expression. Numerous cultures have utilized jewelry as a form of currency and continue to do so today. Royal jewels have been used to secure the wealth of counties and for many our precious metal and gemstone jewelry rank among as our most expensive assets. For as long as precious metal and gemstones have been used to create jewelry it has existed as a sign of wealth. Many forms of jewelry have their roots in function, pins, buckles and brooches were initially created to serve a specific function but later evolved into more decorative pieces eventually considered ornamentation and jewelry. Jewelry has also played an important part of religion denoting membership and status within the religion as well as various social groups.
Many consider the period of Egyptian jewelry as the dawning period for our modern form of jewelry. It was during this time that the manufacturing of jewelry became a profession and techniques and skills evolved to create a wide variety of styles and adornments. Jewelry craftsman began to utilize artistic skill and an increasingly wide variety of materials. While artistic skill was valued the primary purpose of jewelry was to act as amulets and talismans. Gemstone and metal color was of greater importance than any other attribute. Gold was used extensively but this is primarily because it was readily available and very easy to work with. Many expensive gemstones we consider precious today like diamonds were very rarely used simply because they did not exhibit the color or symbolism of other gemstones. Egyptian beliefs stipulated that every gemstone carried certain mystical powers which would be transferred to the owner when worn as jewelry. Symbols such as the sacred Egyptian scarab also formed an important part of jewelry and were also believed to carry certain powers.
Early Greek and Roman jewelry relied heavily upon trade with neighboring cultures and is therefore quite varied in style and construction. Cultural symbolism once again played an important part of jewelry during this period. Greek and Roman jewelry was often created to symbolize legends and gods and later popular cultural beliefs. During this time metal working techniques evolved and jewelry pieces became more intricate and delicate. These techniques resulted in the increased popularity of earrings and other pieces which required more delicate construction methods. Unlike other dominant cultures the Greek and Roman cultures did not ascribe to the belief that gemstones possessed certain mystical powers. For this reason stones metals are used as the predominant construction materials. This period is renowned for the creation of the cameo. The cameo is a piece of stone carved to create a portrait of a leader or god. This form of jewelry remains popular today and has enjoyed a number of resurgences throughout history. Initially Greek jewelry craftsman created highly detailed portraits of Alexander the Great. No other portraits were permitted by law until the later part of this period.
As the majority of world adopted Christianity cultural styles began to converge. Jewelry during this time was used primarily as a form of symbolizing Christian faith. During the early part of the middle ages Christian monasteries were responsible for producing the better part of the worlds jewelry. Early monasteries were required to learn trades in order to support themselves financially with many turning the jewelry craftsmanship. During this time the first independent jewelry guilds were created to both support jewelry craftsman and the industry by implementing practices such as quality inspections. The growing demands for jewelry and a booming population resulted in increasingly sophisticated forgeries which the guild recognized a threat to their boom trade. Celtic cultures in Ireland were not yet affected by the spread of Christianity and so a number of unique styles and manufacturing methods were developed during the time. Unlike Christian cultures of the time the Celts very rarely maintained any form of records and so little is known about the symbolism of the now wildly popular Celtic designs. Precious stones and metals were once again reserved for the wealthy and were even for lower classes during certain periods.
Commonly referred to as the “Jewel Age” jewelry began during the Renaissance to adopt a newfound purpose. Prior to this time jewelry served primarily as form of symbolism and wealth, forming an integral part of expressing religious and cultural beliefs. During Renaissance period the roles of jewelry began to diverge. Increasingly jewelry served the role of body adornment, created solely for the purpose of improving personal presentation and beauty. While jewelry was already seen as sign of wealth many now began to collect it solely for the purpose of protecting ones wealth. As a form of currency it was easily protected, easy to sell and universally valuable. Due to the focus on the role of jewelry in enhancing beauty gemstones were prized for attributes such as color, luster and shine over the previously held beliefs of mystical powers. For the first time in history the use of Diamond was popularized and a number of cutting methods and shapes were developed. Discoveries of new countries resulted in massive influx of previously scarce metals and gemstones. The majority of extravagant pieces we recognize today were commission by French and English royalty during this period.
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One step ahead

Ketut Jaya Sugita: ONE STEP AHEAD
Success belongs to those who spot and seize the opportunities: This is the mantra of Ketut Jaya Sugita, who started a business making painted leather sandals in 2003. At that time, all of Bali was grieving from the devastating bombings in Kuta. As the tourist industry and associated businesses crumbled, workers found themselves unemployed. 

“Many members of my family lost their jobs and it was difficult to find a new job. I felt pressure to help them,” says Ketut, who graduated from the Udayana University economics school. “I decided to resign from my job at a garment company owned by Americans.”

With start-up capital of Rp 50 million (US$4,800), he set about opening his own business, drawing on the skills of local people – artists and carpenters.

The opportunity, as he saw it, lay in the fashion world and every stylish outfit needed accessories to complete it – including sandals. Sandals were already available in all kinds of designs, with beads being trendy at the time. But one thing he noticed was that only the strap was ever decorated. As for the insole? As plain as ever.

“I wondered how to make sandals that looked beautiful while being worn and remain attractive even when they have been taken off,” he says. “The point was that the insole shouldn’t be left undecorated.”

He hurried to get advice from his former boss, who encouragingly said the idea was interesting and that fashion would always be popular. 

“The fashion world will keep developing, particularly for women, so as long as I can offer a unique product that has quality and is suitable for the times, it will definitely attract people. That was the main thrust of our discussion,” says Ketut, a father of one who had long dreamed of running his own business.

He ordered a plain leather sandal and started experimenting, mixing suitable colors, painting and adding various decorations. Most important, he says, was making sure the sandals were comfortable. 

At each stage of his R&D, he consulted his former boss and others with relevant experience.

When it seemed he had worked it out, Ketut made several pairs of sandals that he placed for sale in an art shop in Ubud. 

“I waited anxiously. If they didn’t sell I thought I’d open a roadside stall while I looked for another opportunity.”

When all the sandals sold out, Ketut’s spirits soared. “My product was accepted in the market, and that was a gift from God. Frankly, at first I was pessimistic, because Bali was suffering … and many businesses had collapsed.”

With customer feedback, Ketut kept improving the quality of his products, including making sandals in larger European sizes. He employed a shoemaker to improve the quality and recruited his unemployed relatives to help.

Although his business was starting to look good by 2004, Ketut knew he wasn’t there yet, and some buyers weren’t satisfied. “There wasn’t a problem with the designs, but some buyers said the sandals weren’t comfortable.”

So he went to work to fix it.

“Quality became my main concern,” he says. “When the buyers felt the design was suitable and comfortable, and added that the product lasted a long time, then certainly the sandals would be promoted by word of mouth.”

In 2006, the Denpasar city government and the Bali provincial government invited him to take part in the PPE (Export Product Exhibition), an exhibition held regularly in Jakarta. The exhibition, he says, was effective, and brought him a number of local and overseas buyers. Orders were placed for the United States, Australia and Canada, and the number of orders has since grown.

In the same year, his sandals won second prize in the annual design competition held by the Small and Medium Enterprises and Cooperation Ministry, an achievement that “was priceless and was a great motivation to keep working”.

The work paid off: His sandal design won first place in the same competition the following year.
WH Shoes sandals are continuing to find favor internationally, with almost 70 percent of his production volume sold overseas before the global financial crisis hit last year, he says. The crisis flipped things the other way.

“Now it’s the local market that absorbs 70 percent of my products,” he says. “Luckily, I never put off orders from domestic buyers. When the overseas sales became listless, the domestic market came to the rescue.”

A year ago Ketut’s business expanded into making leather bags and belts with matching colored motifs. He uses the leather scraps to make key rings.

To boost appreciation of his work and thwart would-be copiers, in 2006 Ketut registered a number of his designs with related institutions. But because it is expensive and time-consuming to register his designs in Indonesia, he asked some of his overseas buyers to arrange copyright in their countries. 

“Overseas the process is easier and cheaper. It isn’t being done in my name or my company’s, but between myself and the other person, who has a special agreement. But I’ve only done this with one or two designs, just to see if it works.” Ketut’s next plan is to expand his business, mainly in a hope of being able to employ many more people.  “To make a work of beauty, that is easy; selling out brings satisfaction,” he says. “But when I help people, the satisfaction is priceless.”
source: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/07/10/ketut-jaya-sugita-one-step-ahead.html
Wasti Atmodjo , CONTRIBUTOR , DENPASAR | Fri, 07/10/2009 11:42 AM | People